Department of Protozoology
 Nagasaki Univ   Institute of Tropical Medicine Department of Protozoology Kaneko Pf Origin

Cross Contamination Compiled by Osamu Kaneko, (Feb/7/1999 update)

Honduras I/CDC
(to HB3 clone)
Bhasin VK & Trager W, AJTMH 33: 534-537 (1984): The Honduras I/CDC strain (isolated 25 Jan 1980, and cultured from frozen material in May and in June 1980) was placed in culture from frozen material on Sep 1981, and maintained by the continuous flow technique. A year later frozen material was used to initiate growth of the parent strain. This culture was used to isolate clones HB1, HB2, and HB3 in 27 Jan 1983.
Indochina III/CDC


Campbell CC et al, Science 217: 1048-1050 (1982): The Indochina III/CDC strain of P. falciparum was cultured from a Lao refugee in Aug 1980 (Munford R, Univ Texas Southwestern Med School, Dallas, cared for the patient and supplied parasitized blood to CDC).
Oduola AM et al, Exp Parasitol 66: 86-95 (1988): W2 clone was obtained from the 50:50 culture of Indochaina III/CDC and Siera Leone I/CDC by micromanipulation technique. Character is same as Indochina III/CDC, so they concluded this derived from Indochina III/CDC.
Oduola AM et al, Exp Parasitol 67: 354-360 (1988): Mefloquine-resistant culture lines (W2-mef) was obtained from clone W2 after 96 weeks of continuous culture with mefloquine.
Guinet F et al, J Cell Biol 135: 269-278 (1996): Dd2 is a clone of W2-MEF, which derive from W2pMCII under mefloquine pressure x 6month, which derive from W2'82 under mefloquine pressure x 12mon, which derive from Indochina III/CDC
Wellems TW et al, Rev Bras Genet 11: 813-825 (1988)
(to 7G8 clone)

Burkot TR et al, TRSTMH 78: 339-341 (1984): The parental stock of falciparum parasites to be cloned was isolated from 12 year-old male near Manaus, Brazil on 12 March 1980. The isolate IMTM22 was later put into a static culture system and 7G8 clone was obtained by limiting dilution.
Hadley TJ et al, J Clin Invest 80: 1190-1193 (1987): This strain was taken directly from the patient and adapted to in vitro culture in human erythrocytes.
7G8 clone was obtained from Brazilian (IMTM22) strain.
(to 3D7 clone)

Ponnudurai T et al, Trop Geogr Med 33: 55 (1981): Isolate NF54 was derived from a patient living near Schipol Airport, Amsterdam, who had never left the Netherlands. (Delemarre BJM & Van der Kaay HJ, Ned T Geneesk 123(1979))
Walliker D et al, Science 236: 1661-1666 (1987): Clone 3D7 was derived from NF54 by limiting dilution.
Malayan-Camp strain
(to Camp/A1 clone)

Siddiqui WA et al, AJTMH 21: 393-399 (1972): This strain was originally isolated from a patient who contacted the infection in the jungles of the Thai-Malayan border in 1962 (Montgomery R & Eyles DE, TRSTMH 57: 409-416 (1963)), and was maintained in splenectomized chimpanzees at WRAIR (Hickman RL et al, Mil Med 131: 935-943 (1966)). Infected chimpanzee blood was used to infect owl monkeys (Aotus) in Dept of Med Microbiol & Trop Med, Univ of Hawaii School of Med in 1967.
Vietnam-Oak Knoll strain
(to uncloned FVO)
Siddiqui WA et al, AJTMH 21: 393-399 (1972): This strain was isolated from a soldier (R.G.) from Vietnam who was admitted to the Oak Knoll Naval Hospital in June 1968. R.G. was in various areas of Vietnam during his tour of duty and had taken malaria prophylaxis regularly. Apparently this was a primary attack as the patient had no recollection of previous chills and fever. Blood-induced infection of this strain was established in owl monkeys (Aotus) in Dept of Med Microbiol & Trop Med, Univ of Hawaii School of Med in 1968.
Jensen JB & Trager W, AJTMH 27, 743-746 (1978): The first continuous culture of P. f. was established with an inoculum of parasites derived from an Aotus trivirgatus monkey infected with the chloroquine resistant Vietnam-Oak Knoll strain (Trager W & Jensen JB, Science 193: 673-675 (1976)). The culture line of FVO started at the Rockefeller University in Feb, 1976 thus becomes FCR-1/FVO.
(to FCR-3/A2 clone)

Jensen JB & Trager W, AJTMH 27, 743-746 (1978): A Blood containing this strain of P. falciparum (designated FMG) was obtained on Aug, 1976 from the clinic at the Medical Research Council Laboratories (MRCL), Fajara, The Gambia, West Africa through the efforts of Milton Friedman. 1ml of blood was diluted in 10ml of RP plus 10% FCS and shipped by air freight on wet ice to New York City, parasite was cultured directly from a human infection into continuous culture using the Petri dish-candle jar technique, giving line FCR-3.
Robson KJH et al, Proc R Soc Lond B 242: 205-216 (1990): FCR3/A2 is a clone of FCR3 K+ B+ (Dr. W Trager)
SUD 106/1
Bayoumi RAL et al, TRSTMH 87: 454-458 (1993): The initial isolates were obtained from villagers attending a local clinic during the Oct-Nov, 1989 in Asar village, 20km from Gedaref in the Eastern Province of Sudan. Clones were obtained using the limiting dilution method.
T9/96 clone

Rosario V, Science 212: 1037-1038 (1981): T9/96 clone was obtained by limiting dilution.

(#050303 from Tak9?)
Uganda-Palo Alto strain
Siddiqui WA et al, AJTMH 21: 393-399 (1972): This strain "was isolated from a patient who contacted the infection in Uganda and was admitted to the Palo Alto-Stanford Hospital in 1966. Blood-induced infection of this strain was established in Aotus trivirgatus (Geiman QM & Meagher MJ, Nature 215: 437-439, (1967))"
Fandeur T et al, MBP 47: 167-178 (1991): "The FUP isolate from which they started working in 1978 was kindly provided by RJM Wilson (NIMR, London) as an infected Aotus blood sample. Subsequently, by cultivating parasites within human red blood cells (designated FUP/C) or by propagating them in splenectomized Saimiri monkeys (designated FUP/S) (Gysin J et al, J Parasitol 66: 1003-1009(1980), Gysin J & Fandeur T, AJTMH 32: 461-467 (1983))". But from their data, FUP/CP subclone of FUP/C seemed to be contaminated by FCR3('FVO' type).
Robson KJH et al, Parasitol Today 8(2): 38-39 (1992): "A related problem concerns an uncloned Ugandan isolate, called Palo Alto, of which there appear to be several genetically distinct sublines in use among laboratories (Fandeur T et al, MBP 47: 167-178 (1991)). One line was specially selected for its ability to grow in Saimiri monkeys, while other lines have been propagated in culture. Since uncloned isolates often contain more than one genetically distinct clone, the differences among lines of Palo Alto could reflect selection of different parasites that might have been present in the original isolate. Equally plausibly, the current diversity of Palo Alto sublines could have resulted from a contamination of the original isolate or its sublines at any stage in their complex history."
Tanzania I/CDC Campbell CC et al, Science 217: 1048-1050 (1982): This strain "was initially isolated from a US tourist in October 1978, and portion of the patient's parasitized blood were preserved in liquid nitrogen before the parasite was adapted to culture in vitro."
Santa Lucia

Collins WE et al, J Parasitol 77(4): 562-567 (1991): This strain "was isolated from a 3-yr-old Salvadoran female who presented at the Santa Lucia clinic in La Paz Department, El Salvador, in 1975 (Collins et al, J Parasitol 63: 52-56 (1977))"

Udeinya IJ et al, Exp Parasitol 56: 207-214 (1983): "This isolate, V1, was obtained from a Vietnamese refugee in Canada who traveled through Cambodia on his way to Canada" and "cryopreserved and later thawed and cultured continuously." "The origin of the isolate is either Vietnam or Cambodia." The date of isolate is 3/December/1980.
Wellcome Holder AA et al, MBP (1983): Lagos, West Africa
It (Ituxi 084)
(to ItG2, B8 clone)
Udeinya IJ et al, Exp Parasitol 56: 207-214 (1983): This isolate was "originally obtained from patients attending outpatient clinics in hospitals either in the respective countries of origin of the isolate or in the United States" and "cryopreserved and later thawed and cultured continuously." The isolatation from Brazil on 25/July/1979.
"The Brazil It (Ituxi 084) isolate was cloned by limiting dilution after it had been in culture for 173 days. Two of the clones obtained were ItG2 and ItD12. ItG2 was recloned after a further 73 days in culture, giving rise to the second generation clone ItG2G1. The clones were expanded and cryopreserved."
Biggs BA et al, Exp parasitol 69: 189-197 (1989): A twice-cloned Brazilian isolate ITG2F6, which was obtained from the laboratory of Dr. L. Miller (Southwel BRl et al, TRSTMH 83: 494-499 (1989)?) was recloned by limiting dilution and clone B8 was obtained.
(to A4 clone)
Berendt AR et al, Nature 341: 57-59 (1989): ITO4 derived from the Brazilian IT isolate.
Roberts DJ et al, Nature 357: 689-692 (1992): They selected various phenotypes from a P. falciparum line IT 4/25/5. A4 was derived from the endothelial binding line ITO4.
Robson KJH et al, Proc R Soc Lond B 242: 205-216 (1990): ITO is uncloned, ITO4 was selected line from ITO by Dr. A. Berendt (Oxford) (Berendt AR et al, Nature 341: 57-59 (1989))

(Miller LH et al. Mol Biochem Parasitol 59, 1-14 (1993))
(Foote SJ et al. Nature 345, 255-258 (1990))
MAD20 Papua New Guinea
K1 Thailand
NF7 Ghana
FCB Colombia
RO33 Certa U et al, EMBO J 6: 4137-4142(1987): Ghana
DIV30 Belem, Brazil
V1(V1/S clone) Vietnam
D10 & E12
Chen P, Lamont G, Elliott T, Kidson C, Brown G, Mitchell G, Stace J, Alpers M. Plasmodium falciparum strains from Papua New Guinea: culture characteristics and drug sensitivity.  Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1980 ;11(4):435-40.
FCQ27 was renamed to FC27
Brown GV, Anders RF, Knowles G. Differential effect of immunoglobulin on the in vitro growth of several isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. Infect Immun. 1983 ;39(3):1228-35.
D10 and E12 clones
Culvenor JG et al, Exp Parasitol. 63:58-67 (1987) ... this is not the original one
Csl-2 SE Asia (1986)

* I summarized this list for the strains of my interest.  There are other important strains/clones not listed here.

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